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Traditionally, knives were forged from carbon steel, a mixture of iron and carbon. The least expensive material, carbon steel is the easiest to sharpen and keeps the keenest edge, but it rusts, stains, and darkens when it comes into contact with humidity and acidic foods. Stainless steel remains unblemished, but its hardness makes an edge difficult to sharpen and maintain. Ceramic and other knives that boast "no sharpening" eventually become permanently dull.

The compromise is a high-carbon stainless or no-stain alloy of surgical steel, molybdenum, vanadium, nickel, and chromium; this alloy resists corrosion and also provides increased flexibility. The Rockwell Scale, a measure of hardness for steel, serves as a consumer guide: A knife rated 55 to 58 degrees both sharpens readily and sustains an edge; a higher rating means that an edge lasts longer but is too difficult to achieve; below 55 degrees, a blade is just too soft to hold an edge.

After it is forged, the entire blade is ground or tapered so that its thickness gradually decreases from the handle to the tip. To see this, look at the top of  a knife with the cutting edge down. A slim taper strengthens a knife, making an edge easier to acquire and maintain, and creates a tip that penetrates easily. Some stamped knives are also taper-ground, but most lesser models will have either a fat taper or none at all. The best edges are completely beveled.



Chef’s Knife      

Paring Knife


Boning Knife

Bread Knife

Tomato Knife


Sandwich Knives

Meat Fork


Although knives can go in the dishwasher, the blades will be dulled. It is better to wash and dry knives by hand. Rub off any stains with a clean wine cork dipped in a household cleanser; a mixture of coarse salt and lemon juice or vinegar is another popular remedy that works well.


Knives must be properly stored to maintain their edges. A wooden countertop block or drawer tray with slots isolates each blade. Knife guards also work well.


A good stroking on a sharpening steel is necessary before each use. Contrary to popular belief, a sharpening steel does not sharpen a knife as much as it resets, or realigns, the edges. While steeling is faster on a coarse steel, a fine one produces a smoother finish. Any steel can be used horizontally or vertically. If steeling vertically, anchor the steel in a damp towel.

Place the heel edge of the knife behind the steel at a twenty-degree angle (to find twenty degrees, hold the knife edge perpendicular to the steel at a ninety-degree angle, then tilt the knife halfway up for a forty-five degree angle, then halfway up again); now pull the entire blade down the length of the steel until you reach the tip. Place the knife in front of the steel; repeat.

To steel a knife horizontally, hold the knife in the cutting hand with its blade perpendicular to the steel, which is held in the other hand. Find a twenty-degree angle, and move the knife across the steel from heel to tip. Turn the knife over; repeat. Ten strokes on each side are usually sufficient. Since a steel is magnetized to attract particles, store the steel separately from knives.


A knife should also be sharpened several times a year on a stone. A rectangular Carborundum block with medium-coarse and medium-fine grit is most common. Before using, cushion the stone in a damp towel, lubricate it with oil, and orient it vertically.

Start with the coarse side up; lay the heel of the blade on the bottom right-hand edge of the stone. Sharpen the entire edge by holding the knife at twenty degrees with one hand while guiding the blade with the other. Turn the knife over; repeat, starting with the heel of the blade on the lower left-hand edge of the stone. After ten to twenty swipes on each side, use the fine-grain side to keen the edge.


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